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Pedagogy is part of both social and human sciences. This duality is confirmed in the history of pedagogy as a discipline which, since its conception, has been treated as reflective knowledge as well as normative knowledge about raising and educating others. The beginnings of this field of science are rooted in the teachings of ancient philosophers. Confucius and Plato are recognized as having played key roles in its conception. In historical and pedagogical literature, Aristotle is also identified as an important representative of ancient thought on education. This entry examines the history of pedagogy, modern pedagogical discourses, and contemporary pedagogical discourses.

The History of Pedagogy

The influence of Western philosophy is also significant—it has developed the (Latin) term ars educandi—“the art of education” as a key term ...

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