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Intelligence is a ‘latent construct’, which means it is a theoretical concept, which cannot be observed or measured directly. We therefore define and measure intelligence through behaviours, which are thought to indicate intelligence. There have been definitions of intelligence throughout written history. For example, Homer, the classical Greek poet, describes Odysseus as ‘quick-witted’ in the 6th century BCE. At the most basic level, intelligence is successful adaptation to the environment, the ability to survive long enough to pass on your genes. Common-sense notions of intelligence adopted every day are likely to involve some combination of knowledge or capacity for knowledge, adaptability or flexibility, the ability to use resources, and abstract thinking. However, there is still no single agreed definition.

In 1994, 52 academic researchers associated with ...

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