Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a category of sleep-wake disorder diagnoses in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). These disorders are the result of (a) abnormality in the human endogenous near-24-hour (circadian) biological clock, (b) abnormalities in the presence or timing of agents that influence the clock (e.g., light, melatonin, and structured activities such as exercise and meals), or (c) behaviors that lead to a misalignment between the internal rhythm and the required timing of external demands such as school, work, or social activity. The primary manifestation of CRSWD includes varying constellations of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and other negative effects on waking function. Untreated, CRSWD are commonly associated with increased risk of accident or injury, negative ...

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