Bipolar Disorders: Lifespan Perspectives

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mood disorder archetypally presenting as episodes of mania, hypomania, and depression. Manic episodes are characterized by elevated, expansive, or irritable mood resulting in distress or impaired functioning, whereas major depressive episodes are extended periods of clinically significant depressed mood. Manic symptoms insufficiently severe to cause distress or impair functioning constitute a hypomanic episode. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, defines three major BD diagnoses. Bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is diagnosed on the occurrence of at least one manic episode, and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) is diagnosed on the basis of at least one hypomanic and one major depressive episode. Cyclothymic disorder is diagnosed based on the long-term (at least 2 years for adults and 1 ...

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