Behavioral addictions (BAs), which are also referred to as “process addictions,” are persistent reward-seeking activities that do not involve use of a substance, yet lead to significant negative consequences. Substance use disorder (SUD) is the most widely recognized addiction, and thus BAs, which are only more recently being studied, are typically compared with SUD in terms of criteria and clinical features. BAs comprise a wide array of behaviors that can become problematic, including gambling, shopping, eating, sex, use of electronics (e.g., web surfing, texting, gaming, television), work, exercise, and hobbies. There are also reports of less common BAs such as tanning, plastic surgery, tattooing, and going to psychics. This entry first addresses the challenges with defining BAs and then discusses the clinical importance, assessment, ...

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