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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Psychological Factors

The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), characterizes the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in three categories: (1) predominantly inattentive presentation, (2) hyperactive-impulsive presentation, and (3) combined presentation. These symptoms are required to be present for at least 6 months, and the severity of the symptoms are categorized as mild, moderate, or severe based on the impairments affecting everyday functioning. This entry focuses on the psychological factors associated with ADHD in children, such as cognitive impairments, emotion dysregulation, and negative academic outcomes, as well as the psychological impacts on adults with ADHD.

Cognitive Impairments
Executive Functions

Studies evaluating executive functions in ADHD identify key deficits in response inhibition, planning, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and motivational self-regulation. Working memory is consistently ...

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