Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Gender and Sex Differences

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common mental health disorder of childhood and is a chronic concern that continues into adulthood. ADHD encompasses a range of severity and impairments (e.g., social, academic, occupational, behavioral). In addition, the economic cost of ADHD is considerable, given the need for special services in schools during childhood and adolescence, the poor occupational outcomes (e.g., unemployment), and the increased risk for criminal behavior of adults with ADHD. Although prevalence rates of ADHD vary, likely due to methodology of sampling, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, estimates that across cultures approximately 5% of children and 2.5% of adults have ADHD with an approximate male-to-female ratio of 2:1 in children and 1.6:1 in adults. ...

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