Anxiety Disorders: Gender and Sex Differences

Gender and sex differences across the anxiety disorders have not been adequately examined. There is a paucity of research exploring the relations of gender (the attitudes and behaviors a culture places on a person’s sex) and sex (biological status) to specific symptom patterns, treatment engagement, treatment responsiveness, mediational variables, and mechanisms of action of treatment. This entry focuses on what is currently known about these questions in the major anxiety disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

The Anxiety Disorders

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Twice as many women appear to have panic disorder (PD) as men. Some evidence now exists to suggest that the effects of progesterone on behavioral responses during the premenstrual phase, in combination with heightened reactivity to the ...

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