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The etiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is complex; the risk for AUD is similarly complex and multifaceted. The heritability (i.e., the proportion of phenotypic variables that is attributable to genetic variance) of AUD is estimated at about 50%; the environmentability (i.e., the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to environmental variance) of AUDs is similarly about 50%. Although a substantial knowledge base now exists regarding both heritable and environmental risk factors for AUD, it is important to say at the outset that no single risk factor or a combination of them perfectly predicts the development or course of this disorder. Instead, there is substantial variability in the link between risk factors and alcohol problems. However, understanding the risk factors for AUD and the mechanisms by ...

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