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Agoraphobia is characterized by intense fear or anxiety about being in situations in which escape might be difficult or the person fears help will not be available when having a panic attack or panic-like symptoms. The person may also fear having debilitating or embarrassing symptoms, such as diarrhea, incontinence, vomiting, disorientation, or, particularly in the elderly, falling. Although agoraphobia literally means “fear of the marketplace,” the fear or avoidance of situations is a much broader definition. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the person must endorse anxiety or fear when in at least two of five types of situations: (1) public transportation (e.g., trains, buses, airplanes, boats), (2) open spaces (e.g., bridges, parking lots, marketplaces), (3) enclosed ...

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