Withdrawal refers to a set of physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive symptoms that occur following the cessation or reduction in use of a psychoactive substance used over a prolonged period of time. Withdrawal is a key criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), for diagnosing most of the substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol use disorder), with the exception of two categories of disorders (hallucinogen-related use disorders and inhalant use disorders). The withdrawal symptoms result in a significant level of distress and are disruptive to important areas of daily functioning. Withdrawal symptom profiles are unique to each class of substances and may also vary among specific substances within each class. Generally, they are an opposite and severe manifestation of the ...

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