Taijin kyofusho (TKS) is characterized by an intense fear that one’s own body parts or functions displease, embarrass, or are offensive to others. The term taijin kyofusho literally means the disorder (sho) of fear (kyofu) of interpersonal relations (taijin). It was first developed in Japan to describe a nervous character or temperament called shinkeishitsu. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), TKS is included under the “Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues” section of the social anxiety disorder (SAD) diagnosis. Although TKS was originally described in the DSM-IV as a culture-bound syndrome, specifically unique to Japan, recent research has revealed that such symptoms may also be found in non-Asian countries.

In Japanese clinical settings, up to 38% of patients are diagnosed with TKS. However, ...

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