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The concept of stigma can be traced to ancient Greece, where the term referred to a physical mark or abrasion believed to signify a socially disgraceful personal characteristic. Over time, the context and meaning of this term have changed, although its negative connotations have remained. Recent scholars such as Erving Goffman have defined stigma as any negative attribution imposed on a person or group of people. As such, stigma has been a common topic of study among scholars such as social psychologists and sociologists. The literature suggests that negative attributions (e.g., those directed toward minority identities or characteristics including race, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, physical disability, and mental health disorder) play key roles in distinguishing individuals or groups as targets of bias and discrimination. The ...

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