Sleep-Wake Disorders: Treatment

This entry considers the recommended first-line treatments for several categories of sleep-wake disorders, as classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

Insomnia Disorder

The recommended treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi). CBTi is a multicomponent therapy that aims to reestablish behavioral associations between the sleeping environment and relaxation while also targeting faulty cognitions and beliefs about sleep and negative thoughts generally.

Sleep Hygiene

This component involves education about sleep behaviors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors that may affect sleep (e.g., caffeine, exercise, alcohol, and/or the importance of routine).


Patients with insomnia are characterized by increased somatic and cognitive arousal through the 24-hour day. Relaxation techniques may help counter this. The most widely used relaxation technique is progressive muscle ...

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