Achievement tests are assessment instruments designed to measure developed knowledge, skill, or performance in a single academic domain or across multiple academic domains. Among the achievement instruments most commonly used in the United States are comprehensive achievement batteries, single-subject tests, diagnostic tests, and informal tests of achievement. Comprehensive achievement batteries measure an examinee’s performance over several subjects, facilitating the comparison of performance across content areas. Single-subject tests, by contrast, measure performance in only one achievement area, often in much greater depth than single-matter subtests derived from comprehensive achievement batteries. Diagnostic tests are generally used to identify specific areas of strength or weakness in basic skills, such as reading and mathematics, and can be especially useful in diagnosing specific learning disabilities. Finally, informal measures of achievement ...

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