Sleep-Wake Disorders: Cultural Factors

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, considers sleep-wake disorders to constitute 10 groups of disorders with related symptomatology: (1) insomnia disorder, (2) narcolepsy, (3) hypersomnolence disorder, (4) breathing-related sleep disorders (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea), (5) circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, (6) non–rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorders (e.g., sleepwalking, sleep terrors), (7) rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (e.g., sleep paralysis), (8) nightmare disorder, (9) substance/medication-induced sleep disorders, and (10) restless legs syndromes. The common feature that all have are either patient or bed partner dissatisfaction with the timing, quality, or quantity of sleep; impairment of daytime functioning; and, if sleep is insufficient over long periods of time, heightened risk for obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, workplace and automobile accidents, among others.

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