Sleep-Wake Disorders: Biological Factors

The classification of sleep-wake disorders covers a broad spectrum of disorders including insomnia disorder, hypersomnolence disorder, narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorders, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, non–rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorders, nightmare disorders, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, restless legs syndrome, and substance/medication-induced sleep disorder, and each of these disorders can often be further differentiated into subtypes. For instance, insomnia disorder has the specifiers of “with nonsleep disorder mental comorbidity,” “with other medical comorbidity,” or “with other sleep disorder,” and its frequency or intensity can also be specified (episodic, persistent, and recurrent). At first glance, attempting to pinpoint biological factors of such a diverse cluster might seem impossible; however, at their core, all of these disorders are the result of a disruption to the ...

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