Perceived self-efficacy is one’s belief in being capable of performing novel or difficult tasks and achieving what one wants to achieve. This “can do” cognition represents a self-confident view of one’s capability to deal with challenging situations by means of one’s own behavior. According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy makes a difference in how people feel, think, and act. Those individuals high in self-efficacy experience fewer negative emotions, trust their own abilities, think in self-motivating ways, choose more ambitious goals, and act more confident when confronted with challenging tasks. They also show more perseverance if barriers occur. In contrast, people low in self-efficacy experience self-doubt and anxiety, are more likely to have self-debilitating thoughts, avoid difficult situations, and give up sooner if problems arise.

Because of its ...

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