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Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders: Risk for

Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders have a complex etiology, and it is recognized that there is not one single cause for these disorders. Rather, both the presence of certain genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental factors across an individual’s lifespan have been associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorders later in life. In addition, exposure to certain environmental factors at particular developmental stages may infer greater risk. This entry first considers environmental factors that are established risk factors for psychotic disorders, then discusses genetic risk factors, and, finally, examines the interaction between these environmental and genetic factors.

The dopamine hypothesis is a long-standing theory of the etiology of psychotic disorders. It was originally based on the findings that the potency of antipsychotic ...

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