Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders: Biological Factors

Schizophrenia has long been considered a disorder with substantial biological contributors. A number of biological risk factors have been identified as being involved in the causes and presentation of the disorder, including genes, hormonal alterations, immune abnormalities, obstetric complications (OCs), and abnormalities in brain structure and function. The following entry highlights some of the most well-known biological contributors to schizophrenia spectrum disorders.


Schizophrenia has been found to be highly but not completely heritable, with most evidence suggesting that genetic transmission of risk for the disorder is complex, likely involving more than one gene in combination with environmental risk factors. Support for genetic influences in schizophrenia comes from a number of sources, including family, twin, and adoption studies. Specifically, family studies suggest that the risk for ...

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