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In 2009, just as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), was about to be finalized, the National Institute for Mental Health launched its Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The RDoC calls for a paradigm shift in research that would align psychiatry with the rest of medicine. Current research in medicine has unearthed etiological mechanisms, discovered biomarkers, and identified risk factors—all of which, separately or in combination, allows for the development of new treatments and precision medicine. Although the rest of medicine is making progressive strides in the treatment of cancer or Alzheimer’s disease, for example, research for the treatment of major mental health disorders has stalled almost completely, according to Steven E. Hyman. It is believed that the discovery ...

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