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Emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms that occur in the premenstrual phase lie on a continuum. Approximately 80% of women report at least mild premenstrual symptoms, 20% to 50% report moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms, and 5% report severe symptoms for several days with impairment of functioning. The approximately 1 out of 20 menstruating women who have the severest premenstrual symptoms and impairment of social and role functioning often meet the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The diagnostic criteria for PMDD are part of Depressive Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). To meet the PMDD criteria, at least 5 out of 11 possible symptoms must be present in the premenstrual phase; these symptoms should be absent ...

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