Persistent Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder

Persistent motor or vocal tic disorder is diagnosed in the presence of either motor or vocal tics that have persisted for at least 1 year and have manifested before 18 years of age. Tics are abrupt, rapid, and repetitive movements or vocalizations that are either simple (meaningless) or complex (structured, purposeful). Examples of simple motor tics include eye blinking and head jerking, whereas an example of complex motor tic is tapping the bottom of the foot. Simple vocal tics include meaningless sounds such as sniffing and humming. Complex vocal tics are linguistically meaningful sounds and may include utterances such as words or echolalic speech. It is estimated that between 3 and 8 children per 1,000 have a chronic tic disorder with a male-to-female ratio ...

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