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The term paraphilia refers to an “abnormal” sexual interest. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), makes a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. The difference between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders is that paraphilias are not associated with personal distress, do not cause harm to others, and/or are consensual. The eight paraphilic disorders listed in the DSM-5 are (1) exhibitionistic disorder, (2) frotteuristic disorder, (3) pedophilic disorder, (4) sexual sadism, (5) voyeuristic disorder, (6) fetishistic disorder, (7) sexual masochism, and (8) transvestic disorder. The DSM-5 also includes “other specified” and “unspecified” categories of paraphilic disorders.

A number of potential factors could contribute to the development of a paraphilia or paraphilic disorder. Because each individual is unique, varying psychological factors and life ...

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