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According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), panic disorder (PD) is a chronic and disabling disorder characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks that are followed by one or both of the following for a period of at least 1 month: (a) fear of having another panic attack or concerns about the implications of the panic attack (e.g., that the occurrence of the panic attack means that the person has a heart condition or is going crazy) and (b) a change in behavior or avoidance of situations due to concerns about having a panic attack (e.g., avoiding situations such as crowds, movie theaters, or malls). Since the 1980s, research on the treatment of PD has been growing, making PD the ...

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