Reviews of the literature of evidence-based psychosocial treatments have identified at least 12 interventions appropriate to oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that meet a standard of at least “probably efficacious.” These vary in design and format and in the target of treatment, but most evidence-based treatments for ODD draw heavily on cognitive behavioral treatment principles. They are designed to be delivered in outpatient settings, with some programs focused on individual intervention with parents (e.g., Parent Management Training) and others incorporating direct intervention with children as well (e.g., Problem Solving Skills Training).

Studies of the effective components of treatment have somewhat mixed findings regarding the effectiveness of intervention elements directed at children rather than at parents. In general, the studies that have suggested little gain from the ...

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