Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Epidemiology

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has been characterized by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as a pattern of defiant, argumentative behavior, particularly in response to an authority figure. Diagnostic criteria have been divided into three categories: (1) angry/irritable mood, (2) argumentative/defiant behavior, and (3) vindictiveness. Individuals must possess at least one symptom from each category to receive a diagnosis. Often diagnosed in childhood or in the adolescent years, children with symptoms of ODD are commonly referred for psychological intervention. Although some findings have estimated that rates of ODD are approximately similar between males and females, others have found that males are more likely to be diagnosed than females. Some have noted that such mixed results ...

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