Opioid Intoxication

Papaver soniferum, better known as the opium poppy plant, has been cultivated and used by humans since before written history. Since then, humans have been experiencing the benefits and risks associated with opioid intoxication. The extract of this plant consists of a variety of alkaloids. Some of them are “active” in the natural form, such as morphine and codeine. Some of them are “inactive” in their natural form, such as thebaine, and can be altered chemically to produce a variety of active compounds. Thebaine derivatives are also known as semisynthetic opioids and include prescription opioids such as hydrocodone and buprenorphine. There are also fully synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl and its analogs. The terms opioid and opiate are often misused. The term opioid refers ...

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