Neurocognitive Disorders: Psychological Factors

Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) are characterized by a marked and substantial decline in at least one area of cognition: complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual-motor, and social. Because of these drastic changes in function as well as the related neurobiology of the conditions, many experience a disturbed emotional state, fear, anxiety, and even episodes in which they disassociate from reality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), describes several types of NCDs—delirium and major and mild NCD due to illness, injury, or other medical condition—which are reviewed in this section.

Similar to the neurocognitive profile of individuals with NCDs, psychological symptoms of those with NCDs tend to be mixed and variable. Referred to as behavioral and psychological symptoms, disturbances in ...

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