The most widely researched and used clinical personality inventory in contemporary assessment psychology is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). The MMPI was originally published in the 1940s by Starke Hathaway and J. C. McKinley to assess mental health problems in psychiatric and medical settings. However, the test rapidly became a standard personality instrument for a wide variety of applications, such as mental health evaluations, personnel screening, and forensic evaluations. The broad use of the MMPI, a true-false personality inventory, was due to its user-friendly format and to the symptom measures that Hathaway and McKinley developed having well-established validity in assessing clinical symptoms and syndromes. The MMPI underwent a major revision in the 1980s that resulted in two separate forms of the test: (1) ...

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