In recent years, attention has been focused on elementary- and secondary-level students who demonstrate persistent difficulties in learning mathematics. Mathematics disorder (MD) is characterized by specific problems with mathematical reasoning, number combinations, number sense, calculations, or word problem solving. As part of the diagnosis of an MD, these problems should be persistent for 6 months or longer and be resistant to remedial intervention efforts at the elementary or secondary level. MD also should be confirmed with a battery of neuropsychological and educational assessments. Furthermore, impairments associated with intellectual abilities and sensory abilities (i.e., hearing and vision), environmental factors, and English-language learning abilities should not be the cause of the MD. Moreover, students with MD typically demonstrate insufficient school progress in mathematics compared with their peer ...

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