Manualized Treatments

Clinical psychology has an ethical obligation to provide assessment and therapy services linked to positive outcomes in research. Manualized treatments specify guidelines and essential techniques and procedures to successfully reproduce and implement a specific psychotherapy. Although common in research settings, the use of treatment manuals has gained popularity in both clinician training programs and practice settings. This entry provides an overview of the history and evolution of manualized treatments, discusses their typical format and primary uses, reviews the controversies surrounding their clinical application, and presents future directions for these treatments.


Credited with revolutionizing psychotherapy research, manualized treatments first appeared in the 1960s and reflected a paradigm shift from free-flowing forms of psychotherapy to more short-term, structured, and problem-oriented treatment approaches. Manualized treatments were initially developed and ...

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