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A longitudinal study design is one in which one or more responses (outcomes or observations) are measured repeatedly on the same unit or individual. In some cases, many responses are measured at multiple time points on each. Longitudinal designs are in contrast to cross-sectional designs, in which only a single observation is made on each unit or individual. Hence, a snapshot of each individual’s response is made in a cross section of time. Examples of longitudinal designs are (a) repeated measures or growth curve designs, whereby multiple observations per individual are made under the same conditions over short or long periods of time; (b) crossover designs, in which interventions change or “cross over” for each repeated observation; and (c) follow-up studies, whereby each individual of ...

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