Locus Ceruleus, Panic Disorder and

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines panic disorder (PD) as an anxiety disorder characterized by three sets of symptoms: (1) unexpected and recurrent panic attacks marked by an abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort that peaks within 10 minutes, and an overwhelming urge to escape the episode that consists of 4 of 13 autonomic physiological or cognitive symptoms; (2) the subsequent and persistent concern or worry about having additional panic attacks, and their negative consequences; and (3) changes in behavior, including avoidance, that relate to the fear of panic attacks. The disorder has a 12-month prevalence of 1.8% and a lifetime prevalence of 3.5% in the general population, according to the National Comorbidity Survey. Individuals with PD ...

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