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Job strain refers to impairments in employees’ well-being, which result from a combination of high levels of work demands and low levels of resources to cope with these demands. Historically, job strain was thought to result foremost from physical work and, thus, was associated with impairments of employees’ physical well-being. The shift from production-to more service-oriented occupational fields in industrialized countries increased the focus on impairments of psychological well-being as indicators of job strain.

The job demands–control model constitutes a prominent example for explaining the development of job strain. It suggests that the interaction of work demands and decision latitude as a resource at work predicts job strain. Thus, employees are more likely to experience job strain in those occupations in which they simultaneously face ...

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