• Entry
  • Reader's guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject index

Intellectual disability (ID), previously known as mental retardation, is a limitation of human functioning characterized by three essential elements: (1) significantly subaverage intellectual functioning; (2) significantly subaverage adaptive behavior expressed as limitations in conceptual, social, or practical adaptive skills; and (3) presence of these limitations prior to adulthood (generally 18 years old). Although ID is a lifelong condition, appropriate supports over sustained periods of time allow individuals with this disability to improve their functioning and engage in all aspects of community life appropriate to their age. Thus, the demands and expectations of every life stage and every life goal apply, including education, meaningful work, leisure activities, satisfying family life, spirituality, and transition to retirement.

Over the years, the name of this disability has gone from ...

    • Loading...
    locked icon

    Sign in to access this content

    Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

    • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
    • Read modern, diverse business cases
    • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles