The Human Genome Project was the first large collaborative science project in the biological sciences. Its goal was to map and sequence the human genome. It was anticipated that this large-scale project would provide a foundation for identifying specific genetic factors important to human health and disease. Such genomic knowledge was promised to help personalize both the clinical encounter and public health interventions. For example, genes underpin behaviors, such as alcohol or drug use, as well as factors associated with intervention compliance or relapse, representing a context for tailoring intervention. In addition, there is increasing evidence that genetic factors play significant roles in the etiology of common diseases and disorders and can provide clues toward targeted therapeutics. This entry provides a brief history of the ...

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