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Gender Dysphoria: Biological Factors

Gender dysphoria (GD) refers to the distress that results from the incongruence between one’s experienced gender (gender identity) and assigned gender. The etiology of GD is unidentified, but areas of research in determining the causes of GD have focused on psychological as well as biological factors. The latter include genetic contributions and the role of gonadal hormones in the onset and development of GD.

Like for other traits and conditions, twin and family studies are performed to elucidate if there is a hereditary component involved in the onset and development of GD. In addition, people with GD have been compared with people without GD with regard to variations in genes (polymorphisms).

Because the brain controls our behavior as well as our feelings, it is key in the ...

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