The five-factor model (FFM) is the most commonly used model for describing human personality traits in the field of psychology. Traits can be described as characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions. The FFM, which may also be called the Big Five, consists of five broad, bipolar domains: (1) Extraversion (vs. introversion), (2) Agreeableness (vs. antagonism), (3) Conscientiousness (vs. undependability), (4) Neuroticism (vs. emotional stability), and (5) Openness (vs. closedness to experience). These domains broadly cover the array of traits that can be used to describe personality functioning. These five domains have succeeded well in serving as an integrative framework for describing the important personality constructs from across every area of psychology, including clinical psychology, as they encompass what had been previously disparate terms from ...

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