Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe a constellation of physical and behavioral problems caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can be associated with fetal death, many children are born with a history of alcohol exposure that can result in a range of impairments. True prevalence rates are difficult to measure due to underreporting of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that 40,000 children are born with FASD in the United States each year. This entry discusses the classification systems for FASD, the mechanisms and outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, and the prevention, treatment, and societal costs of FASD.

Classification Systems

The first published account of fetal ...

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