Female Athlete Triad

The female athlete triad (“the Triad”) was defined in 1997 by the American College of Sports Medicine as a condition consisting of three components: (1) disordered eating, (2) functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and (3) osteoporosis. A conceptual model of the Triad published in 2007 as the result of research advancement expands on the former definition, presenting the Triad as three components—(1) energy availability, (2) menstrual function, and (3) bone health—that occur along continua ranging from optimal energy availability, normal menstrual cycles, and optimal bone mineral density to increasingly severe clinical conditions of low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Women may exist anywhere along each of the three continua and may move in either direction along each continuum at differing rates. Significant health risks associated ...

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