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Expressive Writing

Areas of Use

In the late 1980s, James Pennebaker and colleagues pioneered what has come to be known as the Pennebaker writing paradigm, which is a stand-alone form of EW. In their experiments, as well as experiments based on their work, participants were asked to write down their deepest feelings about an emotionally difficult event for between 10 and 20 minutes, for 3 to 5 consecutive days. Subsequent studies have involved having participants write about their emotions surrounding more positive events as well. In all of its forms, this stand-alone EW has been shown to have positive effects on participants in at least some populations. This is discussed in more detail in the following section on efficacy.

There are a number of forms of psychotherapy that ...

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