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When researching psychological properties, evidence acquires context for refuting or supporting a priori hypotheses by demonstrating both statistical and practical significance. Whereas statistical significance relates the results in terms of certainty about the existence of the phenomenon, practical significance leverages magnitude and saliency to inform about its implications. Effect size is a statistic to quantify the practical significance, demonstrating the impact of the observed phenomenon.

In practice, statistically significant effects should always be reported in conjunction with measures of effect size. If the studied behavior is not statistically significant, practical meaning and relevance should not be interpreted. As statistical significance is largely sample size driven, measures of effect size can qualify the reported findings in terms of relevance.

Different types of effect sizes provide different contextual frameworks ...

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