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Dysphoric mood, or dysphoria (from the Greek word dysphoros, meaning “difficult to bear”), refers to an emotional state of feeling unwell or unhappy. Dysphoria is conceptualized as a complex emotional state, consisting of intense unhappiness and discontent lasting for a short period of time, persisting for months or years, or recurring over time. The emotional state of people who experience dysphoria is characterized by one or more negative emotions including sadness, anxiety, restlessness, and irritability. In addition, dysphoria is often accompanied by certain cognitive symptoms (e.g., a negative view of self and others, impairment in attention and memory) and behavioral symptoms (e.g., lack of self-care, high-risk behaviors such as drug use). This entry briefly reviews the etiology, neurophysiology, and management of dysphoria.

Etiology

Dysphoria has been ...

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