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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), distinguished between two substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses: (1) abuse and (2) dependence. This distinction was based on the assumption that dependence (physiological and psychological) and consequences of use (e.g., neglecting responsibilities) represented different, but related, dimensions of problems and that abuse was less serious than dependence. Research failed to support these assumptions and determined that certain criteria (i.e., legal problems due to use) did not enhance diagnostic accuracy. As such, the DSM-5, published in 2013, combines criteria for abuse and dependence into a single SUD diagnosis for 10 different drugs. The SUD criteria specify that individuals must meet at least 2 out of 10 or 11 criteria (depending on drug class) ...

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