Many of the frameworks and orientations that include cultural formulations of depression have been developed in adults; there are fewer investigations and formulations specific to children. An important caveat in investigations of culture is that ethnic and racial categories are based on self-identification and are socially constructed, and most individuals belong to multiple cultures. Furthermore, culture is the matrix in which all humans function, and it influences risk, symptom manifestation, treatment response, and access and acceptability of services for ethnic and racial minority and majority individuals alike. Two streams of inquiry relevant to cultural factors in depression in youth are covered in this entry: (1) evidence for culture-specific differences in risk factors, symptom manifestation, and effective treatments for depression and (2) potential causes for the ...

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