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Depression, Medical Illness and

A strong bidirectional relation exists between clinical depression and various medical conditions and chronic illnesses. In the overall population, the lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is about 16%. The prevalence of MDD increases substantially among individuals with comorbid medical conditions, and the presence of MDD in conjunction with medical illness is associated with poorer treatment outcomes for both the mood disorder and the medical condition. It also is clear that MDD is differentially related to both the type and the number of comorbid medical illnesses. For example, approximately 25% to 30% of individuals with type 2 diabetes and 15% to 40% of cancer patients have MDD, with prevalence varying based on the cancer site, stage of illness, social support resources, and method ...

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