Contingencies are available in many forms in substance abuse treatment. For example, patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment can earn take-home methadone doses (rather than coming to the clinic daily) for providing urine drug screens that are negative for illicit substances. Patients who are court mandated to attend substance abuse treatment face possible sanctions and reincarceration if they do not follow through with their treatment recommendations. Thus, it has frequently been recognized that positive (reward) and negative (punishment) contingencies can be utilized to modify specific behaviors related to addiction and recovery.

Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral treatment that uses behavioral contingencies and is often applied to encourage abstinence from drugs of abuse. CM is evidence-based and applies the use of behavioral consequences (reward and punishment) to ...

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