Conduct Disorder: Gender and Sex Differences

Conduct disorder (CD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavioral disregard for the rights of others and age-appropriate social norms and rules. A diagnosis of CD requires the presence of at least 3 of the possible 15 criteria. The behavior pattern causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning and is typically observed across contexts including in school, at home, and in the community. A distinction is made between childhood onset, which begins prior to the age of 10 years, and adolescent onset.

Much of the research on CD has used primarily male samples; however, since the early 2000s, researchers have made an effort to include female participants. Although CD ...

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