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A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by a blow or force to the head that results in an alteration in consciousness. Although many definitions of concussion have been proposed, the Zurich Consensus Statement, formulated by the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport, succinctly describes concussion as a pathophysiological process of the brain, resulting from biomechanical forces of relatively low velocity.

In the past, concussions were often dismissed as harmless and sometimes casually referred to as having one’s “bell rung.” However, with advances in brain research, it is now understood that concussions affect the neurochemical pathways of brain function and so should be taken seriously. For the most part, concussions resolve spontaneously. However, if not recognized and addressed immediately, ...

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